Examples of regulation of political parties in constitutions — (2022)

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Examples of regulation of political parties in constitutions

ACE Facilitators,February 14. 2013

The Question

This question is posted on behalf of Dr Norbert Masson of the Elections and Boundaries Commission of Trinidad & Tobago.

I am preparing a paper regarding registration of political parties and also regulation of campaign financing in Trinidad & Tobago. There is some country evidence to back up the view that there should be some provision in the Constitution related to the regulation of these issues, which would of course be reflected in an appropriate piece of legislation, for example the current Representation of the People Act (ROP).

This evidence relates to problems faced by the EMB in 2001 when two slates of candidates were received from a political party that had internal organizational problems. If for example there was an approved nomination officer that might not have occurred. The matter was settled by the Court.Currently there is nothing in law related to this example, either in the Constitution or in the ROP.

Examples of constitutional provisions relating to political parties exist in Papua New Guinea, Peru and Chile, but what other country examples are there where a responsibility for the registration of political parties is enshrined in Constitutions?

Summary of Responses

In the discussion, members of the Practitioners’ Network identified several examples of countries where the responsibility for the registration of political parties is enshrined in Constitutions. One member further highlighted the fact that it is more likely to find provisions requiring the registration of political parties in a law than in a constitution, though the basis for political party legislation is often found in constitutions. Kenya is one example of such a case.

However, there are a number of countries whose constitutions detail the body with the responsibility of political party registration, including Bhutan, Sierra Leone and The Gambia. Further examples and constitutional provisions are listed in the table 1 below.

In contrast to countries with constitutional provisions regarding political parties, India was cited as an example with no such provision. The Election Commission of India has been recommending such a law and this view was supported by a Constitutional Review Committee.

Table 1: Examples of political party registration provisions in Constitutions

Country
Constitutional provision regarding registration of political parties
Bhutan
Constitution section 15 requires political parties to be registered with the Election Commission.
Burundi
Constitution gives the power to register political parties to the Ministry of Home Affairs.
Cape Verde
Constitution section 238 (d) states that the power to enroll political parties is held by the Supreme Court of Justice.
Ecuador
Constitution articles 108 and 109 (plus 12th transitional provision) requires registration with the National Electoral Council.
Ghana
Constitution section 55(7) requires a political party provide certain organizational information to the Election Commission for purposes of registration.
Kenya
Constitution of Kenya 2010 Article provides for Parliament to enact legislation on Political Parties.
Liberia
1986 Constitution section 79 states that no association can function as a political party unless it meets the minimum registration requirements laid down by the Elections Commission and is registered with it.
Maldives
Constitution section 170(f) gives the Election Commission the power to register political parties.
Nepal
Interim Constitution section 142 requires a political party to be registered with the Election Commission to be recognized for the purpose of elections.
Nicaragua
Constitution section 173 (11) gives the Consejo Supremo Electoral the power to give legal identity as a political party to associations that meet the provisions of the law.
Nigeria
Third Schedule (section 153) article 15(b) and (c) granting the Independent National Electoral Commission the power to "(b) register political parties in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution and an Act of the National Assembly" and (c) " monitor the organization and operation of the political parties a, including their finances." These provisions are implemented through the Electoral Act 2010, as amended, sections 31-41; 78-102.
Philippines
Constitution Article IX section 2 (5) gives the Commission on Elections the power to register political parties.
Seychelles
Constitution section 118 requires the Election Commission to maintain a register of political parties, in accordance with the requirements of an Act.
Sierra Leone
Constitution section 34 creates a Political Parties Registration Commission to register political parties. Sections 34 and 35 of the Constitution give detailed requirements for this Commission and the registration of parties.
South Korea
Constitution section 114 gives Election Management Committees the power to deal with the administrative affairs of political parties.
Thailand
Constitution section 235 defines the Chair of the Election Commission as the political party registrar.
The Gambia
Constitution section 43(1) (c) gives the Independent Election Commission the responsibility of registering political parties.

Examples of Related ACE Articles and Resources

  • ACE Comparative Data Parties and Candidates offers a list where some countries’ constitutions provide for political party registration.Search the list by keyword "constitution."
  • ACE Encyclopaedia Legal Framework topic area

External Resources

Names of Contributors

  • John Hardin Young
  • Manuel Wally
  • Christine Ndayishimiye
  • Praxedes Tororey
  • Bucumi Julius
  • Elin Falguera
  • MCS Centre
  • Alan Wall
  • Bhojraj Pokharel
  • Víctor Hugo Ajila
  • Pipit Apriani

Re: Examples of regulation of political parties in constitutions

John Hardin Young,February 15. 2013

You may want to look at theConstitutionof Nigeria, third Schedule (section 153)article 15(b) and (c) granting the Independent National Electoral Commission the power to "(b) register political parties in accordance with the provisions of thisConstitutionand an Act of the NationalAssembly" and (c) "monitor the organization and operation of the political parties a, including their finances." These provisions are implemented through the Electoral Act 2010, asamended, sections 31-41; 78-102.

Jack Young

Re: Examples of regulation of political parties in constitutions

Manuel Wally,February 15. 2013

Dear Dr Masson,

ACE offers a short cut to identify countries whose constitutions provide for political party registration. Go to

and search the list by keyword "constitution." This will help you compile a short list of countries whose constitutions will yield the sought after provisions.

Best,

Manuel Wally

(Video) Political Parties: Crash Course Government and Politics #40

Re: Examples of regulation of political parties in constitutions

Christine Ndayishimiye,February 15. 2013

Christine NDAYISHIMIYE du Burundi

L'enregistrement des partis politiques et le suivi de l'aspect financier de leurs campagnes sont des questions fondamentales pour l'organisation moderne d'un pays. En effet , c'est la vie des partis qui donne la saveur à la démocratie qui est actullement la forme la plus acceptée de gouvernement;

Dans mon pays le Burundi, la constitution consacre la valeur de l'unité nationale , elle donne ainsi le pouvoir d'enregistrer les partis politiques au Ministère de l'Intérieur en veillant à ce que ces partis soient crées avec une representativité de toutes les ethinies.

Po ur ce qui est des financements des partis politiques, la loi leur interdit de recevoir des aides provenant de l'extérieur du pays, et pour cause, les povoirs publics doivent veiller à la souvaireneté nationale car des financements non contrôlés peuvent nuire à la sécurité du pays; Ainsi, chaque parti politique est tenu de présenter annullement son rapport administratif et financier au Minstère de l'intérieur.

Concernant , le financement des campagnes des partis politiques par les pouvoirs publics, notre constitution prévoit que L'Etat peut financer les campagnes des partis politiques. C'est à dire que c'est facultatif. L'Etat finance ces campagnes si il en a les moyens. Ainsi par exemple pour les dernières élections de 2010, L'Etat n'a rien donné aux partis politiques; mais il faut souligner qu'une nouvelle loi sur les partis politiques prévoit que désormais le Gouvernement va obligatoirement financer les campagnes des partis politique au prorata de leur représentativité à l'Assemblée nationale.

Re: Examples of regulation of political parties in constitutions

Praxedes Tororey,February 16. 2013

TheConstitutionof Kenya 2010 Article provides for Parliament to enact legislation on Political Parties. This is given effect by the Political Parties Act 2011. Part II of the Political Parties Act governs the Registration and Regulation of Political Parties. S. 6.(d) requires Political Parties to submit their constitution during registration to the Registrar of Political Parties. S. 9 provides for contents of their constitution and rules as detailed in the Second schedule to the Act. Clause 15 of the Second Schedule requires Political Party Constitutions to provide for the authorized signatories of the Party who shall sign on behalf of the Party various documents and 15(e) is specific to...' the nomination certificates for nomination or election of a member of the Political Party'. I hope I have been of help.

Praxedes Tororey.

Re: Examples of regulation of political parties in constitutions

Bucumi Julius,February 18. 2013

In Burundi, political parties are registered before the Ministry of Home Affairs. But the funds, if available, are granted to political parties and independent candidates by the EMB in accordance with the law.

In the constitution of Burundi Title III articles 75 to 85relates to the Political parties' system. I can give you an idea of their contents:

  • Article 75 is relating to recognition of multipattism in Burundi.
  • Article 77 and 78: Requirements to be registered such as preaching national unity, fighting against violence, exclusion and hatred in all their forms, having national coverage of membership in the executive committee etc
  • Article 79: Political parties are also free to form coalistions
  • Article 80: Ruling party or public powers are not allowed to interfere in political parties functioning except to prevent disorder, discrimination and any form of hatred .
  • Article 82: Police and army and magistrates are forbiden to members of politicsal parties even if they are allowed to vote
  • Article 83: Financing of political parties from abroad is prohibited except in case of the derogation by the law. The funds to comprmise the independance and national sovereignity are prohibited.
  • Article 84: For promoting democracy, the law can allow the political party financing in equitable manner, proportionally to the seats obtained in the parliament. The funds can also be granted for the functioning and electoral rallies for political parties in a transparent manner. All financing of political parties are determined by the law.

Therefore, there is a law on political parties providing the details about registration and political parties financing.

There is also an Electoral Act which provides requirements for political parties and independent candidates to be allowed by the EMB to campaign and observe the electoral process.

(Video) The Constitution & Political Parties Conference | First Amendment & Regulation of Political Parties

The gender sensitivity is taken in consideration and do not forget it as pieces of advice. In the executive committee, women must be represented at least by 30% of women. It is the same in all elected institutions. Now Burundi has 50% of elected women in the Senate, which is wonderful.

I remain on your disposal for more information if necessary.

Re: Examples of regulation of political parties in constitutions

Elin Falguera,February 18. 2013

Dear Dr Masson,

Specifically related to political party and campaign finance,International IDEA’s database on political finance gives you information on 180countries and which of those that regulate these matters (at least partly) intheir Constitutions. Visit the ’sources‘page for an easy overview: http://www.idea.int/political-finance/sources.cfm.

If you have any questions send an e-mailto: [emailprotected]

Kindly,

Elin Falguera

Re: Examples of regulation of political parties in constitutions

ACE Facilitators,February 20. 2013

This reply is posted on behalf of the MCS Centre.

In India there is no constitutional provision regarding political parties. In the constitution, which is the longest written constitution now, there is no reference to political parties.

Our experience teaches the need for a separate law regulating political parties. The Election Commission of India has been recommending such a law and this view was supported by Constitutional Review Committee under the Chairmanship of Justice Venkatachaliah (Former Chief Justice of Supreme Court of India).

In my opinion should cover inter alia: registration of political parties and their deregisteration in certain circumstances; regulation of their accounts/donations/payments and receipts; party post elections including rotation of posts; resolution of party disputes/splits; regulation of election manifestos including promise of freebies being financial commitments of budgetary nature except announcement of public good projects; regulation of party nominees as candidates for electoral contests without party high command's interference; and declaration of assets and liabilities by party leaders in their websites.

Re: Examples of regulation of political parties in constitutions

Alan Wall,February 21. 2013

Provisions requiring the registration of political partiesare much more likely to be found in law than in constitutions, though the basisfor laws governing political parties is often specified in the Constitution.These bases may be short and aspirational (as in, say, Jordan) or lengthy anddetailed.

There are also some countries whose constitutions specify thebody which has responsibility forregistering political parties. In addition to those countries mentioned by DrMasson, and the Nigeria and Kenya examples cited above, other examples include:

  • Bhutan – Constitution S 15 requires political parties to beregistered with the Election Commission.
  • Cap Verde – Constitution S 238 (d) states that the power to enrol political parties is held by theSupreme Court of Justice.
  • Ghana - ConstitutionS 55(7) requires a political party provide certain organisational informationto the Election Commission for purposes of registration.
  • Liberia – 1986 Constitution S79 states that no associationcan function as a political party unless it meets the minimum registration requirements laid down by the ElectionsCommission and is registered with it.
  • Maldives – Constitution S 170(f) gives the Election Commissionthe power to register political parties.
  • Nepal – Interim Constitution S 142 requires a politicalparty to be registered with the Election Commission to be recognised for thepurpose of elections
  • Nicaragua – Constitution S 173 (11) gives the ConsejoSupremo Electoral the power to give legal identity as a political party to associationsthat meet the provisions of the law.
  • Philippines – Constitution Article IX S 2 (5) gives theCommission on Elections the power to register political parties
  • Seychelles – Constitution S 118 requires the ElectionCommission to maintain a register of political parties, in accordance with therequirements of an Act
  • Sierra Leone – Constitution S 34 creates a Political PartiesRegistration Commission to register political parties. Ss 34 and 35 of theConstitution give detailed requirements for this Commission and the registrationof parties.
  • South Korea – Constitution S 114 gives Election ManagementCommittees the power to deal with the administrative affairs of political parties.
  • Thailand – Constitution S 144 defines the Chair of the ElectionCommission as the political party registrar
  • The Gambia - ConstitutionS 43(1) (c) gives the Independent Election Commission the responsibility ofregistering political parties.

Regards

Alan

Re: Examples of regulation of political parties in constitutions

Bhojraj Pokharel,February 22. 2013

(Video) The Rise of Political Parties Part 4 Interpreting the Constitution

There are various legal tools to ope-rationalize political parties in Nepal. These legal tools are:

1.Anti Defection Act, 1997

2. Political Parties Act, 2002

3. Interim Constitution of Nepal,2007

4. Election Commission Act, 2007

Either you can contact to Election Commission of Nepal or You can access these laws on the following link:

http://www.lawcommission.gov.np/en/activities/list-of-laws/func-startdown/440/

For your convenience I am copying the following provision of the Interim Constitution, 2007 about the political parties.

"Part 18

Political Parties

1.Prohibition on the Imposition ofRestrictions on Political Parties:

1.Persons who are committed to common political ideology, philosophyand programme shall, subject to the laws made under proviso (3) of clause (3) ofArticle 12 of this Constitution, be entitled to form and operate political partiesof their choice and to generate or cause to be generated publicity in order tosecure public support and cooperation from the general public for theirideology, philosophy and programmes, and to carry out any other activities forthat purpose. Any law, arrangement or decision which restricts any suchactivities shall be considered inconsistent with this Constitution and shall ipsofacto be void.

2.Any law, arrangement or decision which allows for participation orinvolvement of only a single political party or persons having a singlepolitical ideology, philosophy or program in the elections, political system ofthe country or conduct of State Affairs shall be considered inconsistent withthis Constitution and shall ipso facto be void.

3.Political Parties with the objectives contrary to the spirit and normsof the preamble of this constitution shall not be considered qualified for theparty registration.

2.Registration Required forSecuring Recognition for the Purpose of Contesting Elections as aPolitical Party:

1.Any political party wishing to secure recognition from theElection Commission for the purposes of elections shall be required to registerits name with the Election Commission as per the procedure determined by the Commission.The name of the political parties failing to register their names shall beremoved from the list of the Election Commission.

2.While applying for the registration pursuant to clause (1) above, apolitical party shall, along with its constitution, manifesto and the rules, haveto clarify the following details, in addition to other matters:-

(a)the name of the political party and address of its central office,

(b)the names and addresses of the members of its Executive Committeeor any such other similar committee,

(c)the income source of the proposed political party and the detailsof such sources.

3.Political parties shall have to fulfill the following conditions whilefiling an application pursuant to clause (1) above: -

(a)the constitution and the rules of the political party must be democratic,

(b)the constitution or the rules of the political party must providefor election of office bearers of the parity in all levels at least once inevery five years,

(c)in the executive committee of all levels, there should be theprovision for the inclusiveness of members from neglected and suppressedregions including the Women and Dalits,

(d)in the constitution of the party there should be an effective systemof making the members of the party disciplined.

4.The Election Commission shall not register any political party if anyNepali citizen is discriminated against becoming a member of the politicalparty on the basis of religion, caste, tribe, language or sex or if the name,objectives, insignia or flag of such political parties is of a nature that itwould disturb the religious or communal harmony or of the nature to divide thecountry, or such party constitution or rules are for purposes of protecting andpromoting a party-less or single party system of governance.

5.For the purpose of the registration of a party for election, an applicationwith a signature of at least ten thousand voting supporters shall be deemednecessary.

Provided that in the case of the parties representing in theInterim Legislature-Parliament, this provision shall not be applicable.

6.The establishment, registration, recognition and other matters, exceptthose stated in this Part, shall be as provided for in the law."

Re: Examples of regulation of political parties in constitutions

Víctor Hugo Ajila Mora,March 06. 2013

Estimado Dr. NorbertMasson:

(Video) AP Government Political Parties Part II - Topics 5.4 & 5.5

En la Constituciónde la República del Ecuador, aprobada en el 2008, existe un ejemplo del casoque Usted investiga. La nuestra es una Constitución con un amplio catálogo dederechos y garantías, desarrollados de manera explícita en su mayor parte. Enella se determinan los derechos políticos o de participación. Se consagra elderecho a la organización política de la sociedad en partidos y movimientospolíticos, y además, en la misma Constitución se establecen los requisitos paraque se puedan registrar las organizaciones políticas que se formen.

Los artículos 108 y109 establecen las condiciones para el registro de los partidos políticos. Sino se cumplen esos requisitos no se inscriben en el Registro de OrganizacionesPolíticas del Consejo Nacional Electoral (CNE).

Se da una especialimportancia a los partidos políticos, tanto es así que desde el 2008 se inicióun período de transición para que las organizaciones políticas que existíanantes de esa fecha, se adapten y cumplan las nuevas condicionesconstitucionales. Los requisitos que deben cumplir para registrarse son, ensíntesis:

1. Declaración de principiosideológicos,

2. Programa degobierno queestablezca las acciones básicas que se proponen realizar

3. Estatuto o régimen orgánico,símbolos, siglas,emblemas, distintivos,

4. Nómina de la directiva.

5. Contar con unaorganizaciónnacional, que comprenderá al menos al cincuenta por ciento delas provincias del país, dos de lascuales deberán corresponder a las tresde mayor población.

6. Contar con un registro deafiliados nomenor al uno punto cinco por ciento del registro electoralutilizado en el último proceso electoral.

Los partidos políticos son de carácternacional únicamente; mientras que movimientos políticos, (cuya estructura yfuncionamiento es más flexible) pueden ser desde nacionales hasta parroquiales,es decir, según las formas de organización del territorio (nacional, regional,provincial, cantonal y parroquial), y deben cumplir los mismos requisitosenunciados, con algunas variables según el ámbito territorial.

Cabe resaltar que en la mismaConstitución se estableció, que una vez entrada en vigencia la Carta Magna, lasorganizaciones políticas preexistentes debían reinscribirse nuevamente paraconservar su vida jurídica.

También es importante mencionar que lasnormas constitucionales se desarrollaron luego en el llamado Código de laDemocracia.

A continuación le transcribo losartículos respectivos de la Constitución.

Constituciónde la República del Ecuador

“Secciónquinta

Organizacionespolíticas

Art.108.-Los partidos y movimientospolíticos son organizaciones públicas no estatales, que constituyen expresionesde la pluralidad política del pueblo y sustentarán concepciones filosóficas,políticas, ideológicas, incluyentes y no discriminatorias.

Suorganización, estructura y funcionamiento serán democráticos y garantizarán laalternabilidad, rendición de cuentas y conformación paritaria entre mujeres yhombres en sus directivas.

Seleccionarána sus directivas y candidaturas mediante procesos electorales internos oelecciones primarias.

Art. 109.-Los partidos políticos serán de carácter nacional, se regiránpor sus principios y estatutos, propondrán un programa de gobierno y mantendránel registro de sus afiliados. Los movimientos políticos podrán corresponder acualquier nivel de gobierno o a la circunscripción del exterior. La leyestablecerá los requisitos y condiciones de organización, permanencia yaccionar democrático de los movimientos políticos, así como los incentivos paraque conformen alianzas.

Lospartidos políticos deberán presentar su declaración de principios ideológicos,programa de gobierno que establezca las acciones básicas que se proponenrealizar, estatuto, símbolos, siglas, emblemas, distintivos, nómina de ladirectiva. Los partidos deberán contar con una organización nacional, quecomprenderá al menos al cincuenta por ciento de las provincias del país, dos delas cuales deberán corresponder a las tres de mayor población. El registro deafiliados no podrá ser menor al uno punto cinco por ciento del registroelectoral utilizado en el último proceso electoral.

Losmovimientos políticos deberán presentar una declaración de principios, programade gobierno, símbolos, siglas, emblemas, distintivos y registro de adherentes osimpatizantes, en número no inferior al uno punto cinco por ciento del registroelectoral utilizado en el último proceso electoral.

DISPOSICIÓNTRANSITORIADUODÉCIMA-Enel plazo de cuarenta y cinco días desde la entrada en vigencia de estaConstitución, los partidos y movimientos políticos deberán reinscribirse en elConsejo Nacional Electoral y podrán conservar sus nombres, símbolos y número”.

Saludos cordiales

Dr. Víctor Hugo Ajila

ASESOR DEL TRIBUNAL CONTENCIOSOELECTORAL

[emailprotected]

[emailprotected]

Quito - Ecuador

Re: Examples of regulation of political parties in constitutions

Pipit Apriani,March 25. 2013

I attach here the latest Electoral Law of Indonesia, no. 8 year 2012.

In Indonesia, the political parties who wants to run in elections should register in Ministry of Home Affairs and EMB. EMB will check and verify their data. You can find it in Chapter 3.

Attachments
  • Unofficial-Translation-of-Law-8-2012-on.pdf(1.1 MB)

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(Video) Government Regulation: Crash Course Government and Politics #47

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FAQs

What are some examples of political parties? ›

Political Party Statements of Purpose
  • American Independent. The American Independent Party is the party of ordered liberty in a nation under God. ...
  • Democratic Party. ...
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  • Libertarian Party. ...
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  • Republican Party.

Does the Constitution mention political parties and their practices? ›

The United States Constitution is silent on the subject of political parties. The Founding Fathers did not originally intend for American politics to be partisan.

What are two political parties examples? ›

The Democratic Party and the Republican Party are the most powerful. Yet other parties, such as the Reform, Libertarian, Socialist, Natural Law, Constitution, and Green Parties can promote candidates in a presidential election.

Which body regulates the campaign of political parties in India? ›

The Election Commission of India (ECI) is a constitutional body. It was established by the Constitution of India to conduct and regulate elections in the country.

What are the three major functions of political parties? ›

Functions of political parties: i Parties contest elections. ii They put forward policies and programmes. iii Parties play a decisive role in making laws. iv Parties form and run a government.

What is the importance of the political parties? ›

A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about politics, and parties may promote specific ideological or policy goals.

How are political parties regulated? ›

The U.S. Supreme Court has held that states may regulate certain aspects of political parties, including their internal government structure and nominating process, if they can demonstrate an interest in the regulation that corresponds to the severity of the burden imposed.

What does the Constitution say about political? ›

The Constitution does not mention political parties, yet they play an important role in U.S. government. They began to emerge with disputes over the ratification of the Constitution, becoming known as the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists.

What does the Constitution say about political parties quizlet? ›

The U.S. Constitution says nothing about political parties. Abraham Lincoln was the first Democrat to be president. Only one third-party candidate has won the presidential election. In a one-party system, the party and the government are nearly the same thing.

What role do political parties play in Congress? ›

A political party is made up of individuals who organize to win elections, operate government, and influence public policy. The Democratic and Republican parties are currently the primary parties in Congress.

What are the six functions of political parties quizlet? ›

Terms in this set (6)
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Characteristics of a political party are: A political party has members who agree on some policies and programmes for the society with a view to promoting the common good. It seeks to implement the policies by winning popular support through elections. The presence of a leader, the party workers and supporters.

Which commission is mentioned in Article 324 of the Constitution? ›

Article 324 of the Constitution provides that the power of superintendence, direction and control of elections to parliament, state legislatures, the office of president of India and the office of vice-president of India shall be vested in the Election Commission.

Who is responsible to register the political parties in India? ›

A party seeking registration under the said section with the Commission has to submit an application to the Commission within a period of 30 days following the date of its formation as per guidelines prescribed by the Commission in exercise of the powers conferred by Article 324 of the Constitution of India and Section ...

What is is a set of norms and guidelines which is to be followed by political parties and contesting candidates during the election time called? ›

The Model Code of Conduct for guidance of political parties and candidates is a set of norms which has been evolved with the consensus of political parties who have consented to abide by the principles embodied in the said code and also binds them to respect and observe it in its letter and spirit.

Why do we need political parties explain any five points? ›

(i) Parties contest elections. (ii)Parties put forward different policies and programmes and voters choose from them. (iii) Parties play a decisive role in making laws for a country. (iv)Parties form and run goverments.

Why are political parties a necessity in a democracy? ›

Political parties are important as they give a wide variety of choices of candidates in election. Political parties oppose the government and convey the public's grievances to the government. They inform the people about the working of the ruling parties.

What are the major challenges faced by political parties? ›

Various challenges faced by political parties:
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  • Increased dependence on money and muscle power.
  • Failure to provide a meaningful choice to the voters.

What are political parties? ›

A political party is made up of individuals who organize to win elections, operate government, and influence public policy. The Democratic and Republican parties are currently the primary parties in Congress.

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Social anthropologists generally recognize four kinds of political systems, two of which are uncentralized and two of which are centralized.
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How many types of political parties are there? ›

As per latest publication dated 23 September 2021 from Election Commission of India, the total number of parties registered was 2858, with 8 national parties, 54 state parties and 2796 unrecognised parties.

What is political party names? ›

NATIONAL PARTIES

BJP Bharatiya Janata Party 1 . BSP Bahujan Samaj Party 2 . CPI Communist Party of India 3 . CPM Communist Party of India (Marxist) 4 .

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