Class 10 History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India
Table of Contents
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NCERT Notes for Class 10 History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India
Class 10 History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India
Nationalism in India
• Modern nationalism was associated with the formation of nation-states.
• In India like many other colonies, the growth of modern nationalism is connected to the anti-colonial movement.
The First World War, Khilafat and Non-Cooperation
- The First World War (1914-1918) created a new political and economic situationin the years after 1919.
- India faced various problems during war period:
- Income tax introduced and the prices of custom duties were doubled between 1913 and 1918
- which led to a very difficult life for common people.
- Increase in defence expenditure.
- Prices increased through the war years.
- Forced recruitment in rural areas.
- During 1918-19 and 1920-21, crops failure in many parts of India, resulting in shortage of food accompanied by an influenza epidemic.
- Hardships did not end after the war was over.
At this stage, a new leader appeared and suggested a new mode of struggle.
The Idea of Satyagraha
- In January 1915, Mahatma Gandhi returned to India from South Africa and started the movement Satyagraha.
- Satyagraha is a novel way of fighting the colonial rule in India.
- It is a non-aggressive, peaceful mass agitation against oppression and injustice.
- Satyagraha means insistence on truth.
- Satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for truth.
- According to Mahatma Gandhi, people can win a battle with non-violence which will unite all Indians.
- It is a moral force, not passive resistance.
- Gandhiji organised Satyagraha Movements in Champaran, In 1917,
- He travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.
- Kheda district of Gujarat (1917): In the same year, he organised satyagraha to support the peasants of the Kheda district of Gujarat
- In Ahmedabad (1918): In 1918, Mahatma Gandhi went to Ahmedabad to organise a satyagraha movement amongst cotton mill worker.
The Rowlatt Act (1919)
- In 1919, Mahatma Gandhi launched a nationwide satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act.
- This act gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.
- The British government decided to clamp down on nationalists by witnessing the outrage of the people.
- On April 10th, police in Amritsar fired on a peaceful procession, which provoked widespread attacks on banks, post offices and railway stations.
- Martial law was imposed and General Dyer took command.
Jallianwala Bagh massacre
- On 13th April 1919, the Jallianwalla Bagh incident took place.
- A huge crowd gathered in the Jallianwala Bagh where a few people came to protest against the government’s new repressive measures, while some came to attend the annual Baisakhi fair.
- Dyer entered the area, blocked the exit points, and opened fire on the crowd, killing hundreds.
- After the Jallianwala Bagh massacre news spread, strikes, clashes with the police and attacks on government buildings started.
- The government responded with brutal repression.
- Mahatma Gandhi called off the satyagraha movement as the violence spread.
- Mahatma Gandhi then took up the Khilafat issue by bringing Hindus and Muslims together
- Khilafat Movement was led by two brothers Shaukat Ali and Muhammad Ali.
- The First World War ended with the defeat of Ottoman Turkey.
- Khilafat Committee was formed in Bombay in March 1919 to defend the Khalifa’s temporal powers.
- Mahatma Gandhiji convinced the Congress leadersto support the Khilafat Movement and start a Non-Cooperation Campaign for Swaraj.
- According to Mahatma Gandhi, British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians.
- If india refused to cooperate, british rule in india would collapse within a year, and swaraj would come.
- Non-cooperation movement is proposed in stages.
- It should begin with the surrender of titles that the government awarded and a boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative councils, schools and foreign goods.
- After many hurdles and campaigning between the supporters and opponents of the movement. finally, At the Congress session at Nagpur in December 1920, the Non-Cooperation programme was adopted.
Differing strands within the movement
- The Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement began in January 1921.
- In this movement, various social groups participated, but the term meant different things to different people.
The Movement in the Towns
- It started with middle class participation in cities.
- Thousands of Students, teachers, headmasters left government-controlled schools and colleges, lawyers gave up studies, jobs, legal practices and joined movements.
- council elections were boycotted.
- In the economic front, the effects of non-cooperation were more dramatic
- The production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up
- people started boycotting Foreign.
- Liquor shops were picketed.
Reasons for slow down of Movement:
- This movement slowed down due to a variety of reasons such as Khadi clothes are expensive.
- less Indian institutions for students and teachers to choose from, so they went back to government schools and lawyers joined back government courts.
Movement in the countryside
- The Non-Cooperation Movement spread to the countryside where peasants and tribals were developing in different parts of India.
- Peasants and tribals took over the struggle which turned violent gradually.
Peasant Movement in Awadh
- The peasants were led by Baba Ramchandra in Awadh against landlords and talukdars.
- The peasant movement started against talukdars and landlords who demanded high rents and a variety of other cesses.
- It demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of begar and social boycott of oppressive landlords.
- Jawaharlal Nehru in June 1920, started going around the villages in Awadh to understand their grievances.
- In October, he along with few others set up the Oudh Kisan Sabha and within a month 300 branches had been set up.
- In 1921, the peasant movement spread and the houses of talukdars and merchants were attacked, bazaars were looted and grain boards were taken over.
Movement of Tribals in Andhra Pradesh
- In the early 1920s, Alluri Sitaram Raju led the guerrilla warfare in the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh.
- The government started closing down forest areas due to which their livelihood was affected.
- Finally, the hill people revolted, which was led by Alluri Sitaram Raju who claimed that he had a variety of special powers.
- The rebels attacked police stations.
- Raju was captured and executed in 1924.
Swaraj in the Plantations
- For the plantation workers in Assam, freedom means moving freely in and out and retaining a link with the village from which they had come
- They protested against the Inland Emigration Act (1859):
- Under the Inland Emigration Act plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission.
- After they heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement, thousands of workers left the plantations and headed home.
- But, unfortunately, they never reached their destination and were caught by the police and brutally beaten up.
- Each group interpreted the term swaraj in their own ways.
Towards Civil Disobedience
• In February 1922, Mahatma Gandhi decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement, because Mahatma Gandhi felt that it was turning violent.
• Many leaders such as C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru formed the Swaraj Party within the Congress to argue for a return to council politics.
• Younger leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhas Chandra Bose pressed for more radical mass agitation and for full independence.
Factors that shaped Indian politics towards the late 1920s
The first effect was the worldwide economic depression and the second effect was the falling agricultural prices
• The Worldwide Economic Depression
→ Agricultural prices collapsed after 1930 as the demand for agricultural goods fell and exports declined.
→ Peasants found it difficult to sell their harvests and pay their revenue.
• Simon Commission
- The Statutory Commission was set up by the Tory government of Britain to look into the demands of the nationalists and suggest changes in the constitutional structure of India.
- The Commission arrived in India in 1928.
- The Congress protested against this commission, and it was greeted by the slogan ‘Go back Simon’.
- In December, 1929, under the presidency of Jawaharlal Nehru, the Lahore session of Congress formalized the demand of “Purna Swaraj”or full independence for India.
- It was declared that 26 January 1930 would be celebrated as Independence Day.
The Salt March and the Civil Disobedience Movement
- Mahatma Gandhiji chose salt as the powerful symbol or medium that could unite the nation as it is consumed by all the sections of the society.
- On 31 January 1930, Mahatma Gandhi sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin stating eleven demands.
- Among the demands, the most stirring of all was the demand to abolish the salt tax which is consumed by the rich and the poor.
- The demands needed to be fulfilled by 11 March or else Congress would start a civil disobedience campaign.
- The famous Salt or Dandi March began by Mahatma Gandhi accompanied by 78 of his trusted volunteers on March 12, 1930.
- The march was over 240 miles, from Gandhiji’s ashram in Sabarmati to the Gujarati coastal town of Dandi.
- The volunteers walked for 24 days, about 10 miles a day.
- On 6th April 1930, Gandhiji reached Dandi, a village in Gujarat and broke the Salt Law by boiling water and manufacturing salt.
- Thus, it began the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Civil disobedience movement
- It was different from Non-Cooperation Movement as people were now asked not only to refuse cooperation with the british as they had done in 1921-22, but also to break colonial laws.
- Boycott of foreign goods, non-payment of taxes, breaking forest laws were its main features.
- The movement spread across the world and salt law was broken in different parts of the country
- As the movement spread Foreign cloth was boycotted, peasants refused to pay revenue and in many places, forest law was violated.
- In April 1930, Abdul Ghaffar Khan, a devout disciple of Mahatma Gandhi was arrested.
- Mahatma Gandhi was arrested a month later which led to attacks to all structures that symbolised British rule.
- The British Government followed a policy of brutal repression.
- By witnessing the horrific situation, Mahatma Gandhi decided to call off the movement.
- On 5 March, 1931, Lord Irwin, the Viceroy, signed a pact with Gandhi.
- Gandhi-Irwin Pact, Gandhiji consented to participate in a Round Table Conference in London.
- In December, 1931, Gandhiji went to London for the Second Round Table Conference but returned disappointed.
- Gandhi relaunched the Civil Disobedience Movement but by 1934 it lost its momentum.
How Participants saw the Movement
- The Patidars of Reve Gujarat and the Jats of Uttar Pradesh – were active in the movement.
- The producers of commercial crops, they were very hard hit by to the trade depression and falling prices.
- Cash income disappeared, they found it impossible to pay the government’s revenue demand.
- The refusal of the government to reduce the revenue demand led to widespread resentment.
- These rich peasants became enthusiastic supporters of the Civil Disobedience Movement, organizing their communities, and at times forcing reluctant members, to participate in the boycott programs.
- For them the fight for swaraj was a struggle against high revenues.
- But they were deeply disappointed when the movement was called off in 1931 without the revenue rates being revised.
- when the movement was restarted in 1932, many of them refused to participatel
- The poorer peasantry were not just interested in the lowering of the revenue demand.
- Many of them were small tenants cultivating land they had rented from landlords.
- As the Depression continued and cash incomes dwindled, the small tenants found it difficult to pay their rent.
- They wanted the unpaid rent to the landlord to be remitted, they joined a variety of radical movements, often led by Socialists and Communists.
- Apprehensive of raising issues that might upset the rich peasants and landlords, the Congress was unwilling to support ‘ no rent ‘ campaigns in most places.
- The relationship between the poor peasant and the Congress remained uncertain.
- After the war, their huge profits were reduced, wanted protection against import of foreign goods.
- To organise business interests, the Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress in 1920 and the Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FICCI) in 1927 was formed.
- The industrialists attacked colonial control over the Indian economy and supported the Civil Disobedience Movement when it was first launched.
- Some of the industrial workers did participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement. In 1930 and 1932 railway workers and dock workers were on strike.
- The spread of militant activities, worries of prolonged business disruptions, growing influences of socialism amongst the young Congress forced them not to join the movement.
- Another important feature of the Civil Disobedience Movement was the large-scale participation of women.
- Women participated and protest marches, manufactured salt, and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops.
- Congress was reluctant to allow women to hold any position of authority within the organisation.
Limits of Civil Disobedience
- One such group was the nation’s ‘ untouchables ‘, who from around the 1930s had begun to call themselves dalit or oppressed.
- For long the Congress had ignored the dalits, for fear of offending the sanatanis, the conservative high caste Hindus.
- Mahatma Gandhi declared that swaraj would not come for a hundred years if untouchability was not eliminated.
- He called the untouchables’ harijan or the children of God.
- He organised satyagraha for the untouchables but they were keen on a different political solution to the problems of the community. They demanded reserved seats in educational institutions and a separate electorate
- Dr B.R. Ambedkar, the leader of the Dalits, formed an association in 1930, called the Depressed Classes Association.
- He clashed with Gandhiji at the second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorates for Dalits.
- Poona Pact of September 1932, between the Gandhiji and B.R. Ambedkar (1932) gave the Depressed Classes (later to be known as the Scheduled Castes)reserved seats in Provincial and Central Councils but were voted by general electorate.
- After the decline of the Non-Cooperation-Khilafat movement, Muslims felt alienated from the Congress due to which the relations between Hindus and Muslims worsened.
- The leader of the Muslim League M.A. Jinnah wanted reserved seats for Muslims in Central Assembly and representation in proportion to population in the Muslim-dominated provinces.
- Large sections of Muslims did not participate in the Civil disobedience movement.
The Sense of Collective Belonging
- The sense of collective belonging came partly through the experience of united struggles.
- History and fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols, all played a part in the making of nationalism.
- In the twentieth century, the identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata.
- Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay created the image and in the 1870s he wrote ‘Vande Mataram’ as a hymn to the motherland.
- Abanindranath Tagore painted his famous image of Bharat Mata portrayed as an ascetic figure; she is calm, composed, divine and spiritual.
- In late-nineteenth-century India, nationalists began recording folk tales sung by bards and they toured villages to gather folk songs and legends.
- During the Swadeshi movement in Bengal, a tricolour flag (red, green and yellow) was designed which had eight lotuses representing eight provinces of British India, and a crescent moon, representing Hindus and Muslims.
- By 1921, Gandhiji had designed the Swaraj flag. It was again a tricolour (red, green and white) and had a spinning wheel in the centre.
- In the first half of the twentieth century, various groups and classes of Indians came together for the struggle of independence.
- The Congress under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi attempted to resolve differences and ensure that the demands of one group did not alienate another.
- In other words, what was emerging was a nation with many voices wanting freedom from colonial rule.
Introduction. The Nationalism in India means a change in peoples understanding of their identity and sense of belonging. The growth of modern nationalism is intimately connected to the anti-colonial movement. People began discovering their unity in the process of their struggle with colonialism.
Nationalism is an ideology and movement that promotes the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining the nation's sovereignty over its homeland.
Explain: (a) Why growth of nationalism in the colonies is linked to an anti-colonial movement. Answer : (i)Nationalism is the feeling of togetherness of people in a nation. In a nation all the people experience same political , social and cultural situation..
- Rowlatt Act.
- Non-cooperation Movement.
- Civil Disobedience Movement.
- Quit India.
- Role of Mahatma Gandhi.
- Policies of Satyagraha, Swaraj, non-violence.
- Congress Session of 1929.
- Swadeshi and Boycott Movement.
Hint: Frederic Sorrieu was a French artist who belonged to France. He presented a utopian vision in four of his prints in 1848. The prints showed a series in which he represented his dream of the whole world as 'democratic and social republics'.
Answer. Explanation: it means that in India in the early twentieth century and people of different creeds and castes joined or united to fight against colonial rule or british rule. the Indian National congress led by Mahatma Gandhi ji did non violent protests to gain purna swaraj or complete independence.
Nationalism is an ideology that emphasizes loyalty, devotion, or allegiance to a nation or nation-state and holds that such obligations outweigh other individual or group interests.
In the chapter Nationalism in India class 10, it is described as the feeling when people of a country develop a sense of common belonging and are united in a common thread. Their struggles unite them, and they tend to form a common identity.
Nationalism refers to the feeling of oneness that emerges when people living in a common region share the same historical, political, cultural background, speak the same language, have the same cultural values and consider themselves as one nation.
Answer: The word Nationalism implies the feeling of love, devotion, sacrifice and patriotism towards the nation which we belong to. In western culture, nationalism is in the form of state. But in India, nationalism is an immense devotion towards the country.