Nerdfighteria Wiki - Catholic Counter-Reformation: Crash Course European History #9 (2023)

When the Protestant Reformation broke out in Western Europe, the Catholic Church got the message, at least a little bit. Pope Paul III called a council to look into reforming some aspects of the Catholic Church and try to stem the tide of competing Christian sects popping up all over the place. The Council of Trent changed some aspects of the organization, but doubled down on a lot of the practices that Martin Luther and other reformers had a problem with. Today you'll learn about the Council of Trent, the rise of the Jesuits, and Saint Teresa of Avila.

Sources

The Jesuits and Globalization. Historical Legacies and Contemporary Challenges. Thomas Banchoff and José Casanova, eds. (Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 2016.

Rudolph Bell, “Teresa of Avila,” in Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History, Bonnie G. Smith, ed. New York: Oxford University Press 2008), 4: 213-214.

Natalie Z. Davis, Women on the Margins: Three Seventeenth-Century Lives (Cambridge: Harvard University Press,

Lynn Hunt et al., Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures. Boston: Bedford St. Martin’s, 2019.

Benoit Vermander, “Jesuits and China,” Oxford Handbooks Online, April 2015.
http://www.oxfordhandbooks.com/view/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199935420.001.0001/oxfordhb-9780199935420-e-53

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[introduction]

Hi, I'm John Green and this is Crash Course European History. So, last week we took a break from religion to show that amidst warfare and bitter controversy over doctrine, people were also inventing and innovating and enslaving. Europeans were eating new foods, hanging out more in cities and making advances in commerce and legal protections for some people... while also inventing systems of oppression to enslave others.

Years ago historians firmly believed that the Protestant religion promoted capitalism. That is, all the business and commerce that were springing up at the time were caused by the Reformation. Some historians still find that Martin Luther's other worldly interests expanded to this worldlyactivities like reading, in ways that boosted prosperity. But the rise of capitalism was complex. And also, it happened in non-Protestant communities. So today, let's shift perspectives back to how the Catholics were handlingall this.

Were they ready to simply surrender their influence in European society? Did the Church just turn its back on this momentous challenge of Protestantism and continue down its much criticized path? No. They responded. Leaders in the faithful created a sturdy, even strident, Catholic-Reformation or Counter-Reformation that also provided a little grease to the wheels of commerce. And today, we're going to look at the Catholic Reformation and how it influenced not just Europe, but the world.

[title sequence]

The task of reform fell to Pope Paul the Third, who, like many Renaissance popes, lived in the lap of luxury and engaged in corrupt practices such as appointing two of his grandsons cardinals in their early teens. He only hired the best people. Also, why does this pope have grandsons? That reminds me of the great last words of the Irish poet, Brendan Behan. A nun was giving him an injection and he said:

"Bless you sister. May all your sons be bishops."

Then he died.

But Pope Paul the Third did understand, partly because of external pressure, that the Catholic Church needed to shape up. Several attempts at undertaking reforms in formal meetings were blocked by powerful individuals though, who liked the status quo. Powerful individuals and the status quo, the greatest love story of this or any time.

But the Church was tired of seeing its overall power decrease, so in 1545, the Council of Trent, composed of high church officials, assembled to stop the Protestant momentum. And this council continued until 1563, a series of meetings that lasted so long that by the time it was over both Pope Paul the Third and his successor Julius the Third had died. I've definitely had meetings that felt 18 years long. I'm not sure if they were though.

So among the adherents to Protestantism were some of the most powerful princes and members of the nobility in Europe, and some Catholic leaders wanted those Protestants on their side. But eventually, the Council decided not to compromise. Instead the pronouncements of the Council of Trent were stark and emphatic. Already in 1542 while waiting for a council actually to get organized, the papacy had expanded the work of the Inquisition, which had been established in the 13th century to stamp out heresies in southern France and Italy. But now the Inquisition targeted Protestants, and searched for heresy also among conquered people in the New World. The Council also affirmed principles oftransubstantiation, that is, the belief that the blood and wine of the communion sacrament become the actual body and blood of Jesus. It upheld the centrality of the Seven Sacraments and the selling of indulgences stuck around too. Clergy were to remain celibate and chaste, unlike most Protestant clerics. And all Catholics were to continue to live by faith and practice good works as their path to salvation, not by faith alone, like the Protestants.

The Church also began establishing seminaries where priests could become more informed in Catholic theology, and reformers felt this training was sorely needed for priests because they were being confronted by complicated Protestant challenges to Catholic doctrine.

And the Church began the Papal Index, a list of books that Catholics were forbidden to read. In addition, the Church reached deeper into society when it began to further regulate marriages. With the creation of a list of forbidden books and a declaration of power over marriage, the Counter-Reformation took Catholicism from a point of weakness and actually expanded its power, at least over those who believed. Even before these events, what would become a major bulwark of Catholicism and its Counter-Reformation was taking shape, because in the 1520s after being shot as a soldier in one of Spain's wars, a Spanish nobleman took up the challenge to fortify Catholicism.

Just as Luther had wrestled with his faith, Ignatius of Loyola suffered spiritual agonies and emerged as a charismatic leader. But unlike Luther, Ignatius and his followers remained loyal to the Catholic Church. In 1540, the Pope declared Ignatius's followers a religious order called the Society of Jesus, or Jesuits. Many pre-existing Catholic religious orders were rededicating themselves to protect and nourishtheir faith. But Loyola's approach was especially effective given the challenges from Protestantism in the 1520s and thereafter.

First, because he organized and ran his group like an army around a hierarchy of command; joining required several years of training and a strict code of discipline. And all of that was timely because of the Church's reputation for corruption and lax morals and in many cases, priestly incompetence, including ignorance of Latin. That wasn't a problem with the Jesuits.

Second, the Jesuits founded schools where humanistic education thrived alongside religious instruction.

These became a mechanism for combining the latest in intellectual practice with the revitalization and reaffirmation of Catholic theology. And it was important because one of the attractions of Protestantism was its emphasis on broader literacy so that everyone could connect directly with scripture. The Jesuits argued that Catholics could also spread education, which is why incidentally there are so many Loyola Universities around the world.

And that brings us to our final point about the Jesuits. In addition to reforming Catholicism in Europe, the Jesuits undertook globalizing the faith as a regular part of their mission. Through them, Catholicism truly did become a world religion, reaching India and Japan and Africa and the New World. And this Jesuit activism in establishing global relationships would eventually transform Europe in ways that have only recently gained the attention of historians. Let's go to the ThoughtBubble.

[entering the ThoughtBubble]

The Jesuits interacted worldwide with an eye on both short and long term results. They wanted to convert souls, but they also wanted, through schools, to shape the way that young people learned, and thus their perspective. It's important to remember that no education is morally neutral. What you learn about shapes the way you look at the world. And as they travelled, the Jesuits were in constant touch with one another, comparing best practices. And they also adapted different strategies to different parts of the world as their order spread across the globe.

They studied local languages before approaching people and in many cases took elements from local beliefs and tried to persuade those they wished to convertthat Catholic beliefs were basically identical to local ones. And this was effective. In China, there were 38,000 converts to Catholicism by 1633. By 1650, there were over 100,000. Once the Jesuits established these global contacts, they produced reports, first in Latin, but then translated into local European languages, and their work created a Eurocentric globalization that ended up going way beyond religion.

For example, they became an early version of industrial spies when it came to producing porcelain, reporting back from China to Europe about the processes that went into making high quality porcelain. Spreading Catholicism was their mission, but the Jesuits were among those advancing commercial and agricultural development, as well.

Thanks, ThoughtBubble.

[exit the ThoughtBubble]

Many Catholics really took the Church's reforms to heart, intensifying their devotion, sometimes in ways that also helped further the relgion's influence around the world. Among the most renowned was the Spanish mystic and nun, Saint Teresa of Ávila, who had a very long birth name that I will not attempt to pronounce. I mean mispronouncing things is my thing, but there's no reason to go down that road. At 20, she escaped the confines of her home where she was recuperatingfrom one of her many and lifelong bouts of illness to join the Carmelite Order of Nuns, but once there, she balked at the superficiality and the high society life of constant visits and fancy food. She began to live out the reform Church's re-dedicationto faith and good works, being extremely strict in her practice. She was a proponent of self-flagellation ceremonies, self-flagellation being the act of hitting oneself with a whip in imitation of Christ's suffering at the cross. And she became an inspiration, particularly after Church leaders had her write down her spiritual experiences in several books that have now become Counter-Reformation classics, such as Way of Perfection and The Book of Foundations. At the same time she went about founding newdiscalceate,that is, shoe-lessor barefoot Carmelite religious orders, restoring austerity and strictness to religious life.

The Council of Trent had also issued a statement about art, advising that it needed to connect with ordinary people, including the poor. The aim was not to produce subtle or erudite symbolism, but to strike emotions, inducing awe and evoking the power and majesty of the divine.

Gian Lorenzo Bernini produced such effects, for example, in the piazza in front of Saint Peter's Basilica. It featuresmassedcolumns which produce a dramatic setting for papal ritual. Protestants had smashed ornate statuary of saints and the holy family, and instead created simple, unadorned places of worship. But Catholics embraced majestic religious interiors, enhancing figures through the use of light and shade in paintings of Jesus of angels and saints and the royalty surrounding the divine. All of which were part of a new style called Baroque. Did the world just open? Is there a tiny little baby Jesus dressed up fancy back there?

Indeed, it is the Infant of Prague, or at least a... three dollar recreation of it. So you can see here this baby Jesus is in a very fancy dress. And I, uh, listen. If I were a tiny baby Jesus, I would wear this fancy dress. But if you've read the Gospels you'll know that like... this is not how tiny baby Jesus dressed. It is however super Baroque, emphasizing the majesty of the divine. And religious statuary like this also expressed the intensity of the Counter-Reformation and its leading figures. Like, Bernini's statue of Saint Teresa of Ávila for instance would seem to contradict the asceticism of rejecting one's shoes, yet it expressed the ecstatic relationship with the divine and an overflow of the feeling and belief. Likewise Baroque music expressed complexity through the use of counterpoint and emotional and thunderouschords that filled parishioners, both illiterate and learned, with religious awe.

One artist who took up the Baroque style, some would say with a vengeance, was Artemesia Gentileschi. Trained by her father, Orazio,Gentileschi was raped by a man who had been hired to give her additional instruction. She herself was tortured with thumbscrews by the court in order to insure that she was telling the truth when her father brought suit against the rapist. One of the few ways to get revenge? Painting.

The frightening Judith Slays Holofernes for instance shows the biblical heroine and her maid getting revenge on the general Holofernes, who threatened her people's survival. From the dramatic imagery to the high contrast of dark and light, this painting is exemplary of Counter-Reformation art. It evokes the senses and an emotional connection to God's word... and it ain't subtle.

So, between the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation, people obsessively confronted some of the major issues of human existence, right? Faith, the Divine, the human conduct that should accompany religious belief, and we're still not finished with the repercussions of that questioning and the responses to it. These religious upheavalsweren't just about how to get into heaven, they were also about who should learn, and how, and what constituted and effective human life. We are still in the shadow of those who modeled new ideas of what matters in human life. And we'll have much more to say about Catholicism and the role of organized religious in people's lives, but first, next week we dig into the world of witchcraftand shamans and magic and alchemy. Which were also important belief systems in early modern Europe, and ones that co-existed with Christianity. That's right friends, it will soon be time to turn lead into gold and frog eyes into hex potions. I'll see you then.

[end credits]

If you're enjoying Crash Course, we've got lots more Crash Courses you can watch. You can check out Crash Course: World History for instance. Also thanks as always to our animators at Thought Cafe and everyone who works on this show, and especially a thank you to our patrons over at Patreon.com/crashcourse. Thanks, and as they say in my home town, don't forget to be awesome.

FAQs

What was the Counter-Reformation answer? ›

Counter-Reformation, or Catholic Reformation, In Roman Catholicism, efforts in the 16th and early 17th centuries to oppose the Protestant Reformation and reform the Catholic church. Early efforts grew out of criticism of the worldliness and corruption of the papacy and clergy during the Renaissance.

What were the 3 purposes of the Counter-Reformation? ›

The main goals of the Counter Reformation were to get church members to remain loyal by increasing their faith, to eliminate some of the abuses the protestants criticised and to reaffirm principles that the protestants were against, such as the pope's authority and veneration of the saints.

What were the 3 major effects of the Reformation in Europe? ›

Improved training and education for some Roman Catholic priests. The end of the sale of indulgences. Protestant worship services in the local language rather than Latin.

What were two main goals of the Counter-Reformation by the Catholic Church? ›

The Jesuits helped carry out two major objectives of the Counter-Reformation: Catholic education and missionary work.

What were the 3 key elements of the Catholic Reformation? ›

What were the three key elements of the Catholic Reformation, and why were they so important to the Catholic Church in the 17th century? The founding of the Jesuits, reform of the papacy, and the Council of Trent. They were important because they unified the church, help spread the gospel, and validated the church.

What were the three main components of the Catholic Counter-Reformation? ›

The Counter-Reformation had three main instruments: The Council of Trent, the Roman Inquisition, and the the Society of Jesus.

What was the first cause of the Counter-Reformation? ›

Throughout the middle ages the Catholic Church sunk deeper into a pit of scandal and corruption. By the 1520s, Martin Luther's ideas crystallized opposition to the Church, and Christian Europe was torn apart. In response, the Catholic Church set in motion the counter-reformation.

What was the Counter-Reformation for dummies? ›

In response to the Reformation, the church launched a major effort to reform itself, to combat the Protestant movement and reclaim lost territories, and to expand its missionary endeavors around the world. This reform is usually called Counter-Reformation.

What was the main purpose of the Catholic Reformation? ›

The Catholic Reformation was a religious movement that transpired in the 1500s throughout Europe. It aimed at reforming the Catholic Church's corruption and resulted in the creation of Protestantism, a major branch of Christianity.

What was one negative effect of the Reformation? ›

The Protestant Reformation led to: the Thirty Years' war of Germany which, to this day, Germans cite as the most devastating war in their history (even worse than World Wars I and II); the wars in France between the Roman Catholics and the Huguenots; for Spain, internal separation from Europe through the destruction or ...

What was the biggest impact of the Reformation? ›

The Reformation became the basis for the founding of Protestantism, one of the three major branches of Christianity. The Reformation led to the reformulation of certain basic tenets of Christian belief and resulted in the division of Western Christendom between Roman Catholicism and the new Protestant traditions.

Why did Martin Luther leave the Catholic Church? ›

Luther's belief in justification by faith led him to question the Catholic Church's practices of self-indulgence. He objected not only to the church's greed but to the very idea of indulgences. He did not believe the Catholic Church had the power to pardon people sins.

What is the difference between the Catholic Reformation and Counter-Reformation? ›

The phrase Catholic Reformation generally refers to the efforts at reform that began in the late Middle Ages and continued throughout the Renaissance. Counter-Reformation means the steps the Catholic Church took to oppose the growth of Protestantism in the 1500s.

What did the Catholic Church do during the Counter-Reformation? ›

Throughout Europe religious orders publicised the Counter-Reformation, especially the Jesuits, founded in 1540, who created universities and colleges. Catholicism had found the means to stop the expansion of Protestantism and to drive it out of part of the German Empire.

How was the Catholic Counter-Reformation successful? ›

The Counter-Reformation succeeded in reforming abuses in the Church and affirming the sacraments and tenets of the Church as well as encouraging the Jesuits to spread Catholicism around the world. It did not succeed in supressing the Protestant sects.

What were the 4 main criticisms of the Catholic Church? ›

The Catholic Church has also been criticized for its active efforts to influence political decisions and governments, such as the Church's promotion of the Crusades, opposition to contraception, secular education, and LGBT rights, and its involvement with various 20th-century far-right dictatorships.

What are the 3 main virtues in the catholic faith? ›

They are the pledge of the presence and action of the Holy Spirit in the faculties of the human being. There are three theological virtues: faith, hope, and charity.

What are the 3 main beliefs of the catholic faith? ›

What are the Basic Beliefs of the Catholic Church?
  • We believe in God, the Father Almighty, Creator of Heaven and earth. ...
  • We believe in Jesus Christ, His only Son, Our Lord. ...
  • We believe Jesus Christ was conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin Mary.
28 Oct 2001

What are the 5 principles of the Reformation? ›

Definition. The five solas of the Reformation, which distinguished the Reformers from the teachings of Rome, include sola scriptura (Scripture alone), solus Christus (Christ alone), sola fide (faith alone), sola gratia (grace alone), and soli Deo gloria (glory to God alone).

Who were the 3 key figures of the Reformation? ›

In the context of the Reformation, Martin Luther was the first reformer (sharing his views publicly in 1517), followed by people like Andreas Karlstadt and Philip Melanchthon at Wittenberg, who promptly joined the new movement.

Who were the three main figures in the Reformation? ›

Luther, Zwingli and Calvin were the "big three" of the Reformation, but others such as John Knox in Scotland, Martin Bucer of Strassburg, Philip Melanchthon in Germany (Luther's associate and architect of the Augburg Confession) and Thomas Cranmer in England formed something of a "second string" of Reformers that ...

What were the 4 main causes of the Reformation? ›

There were many causes of the Reformation. Causes that were; social, political, economic, and religious.

Who started the Catholic Counter Reformation? ›

Pope Paul III (1534–49) is considered the first pope of the Counter-Reformation, and he also initiated the Council of Trent (1545–63), tasked with institutional reform, addressing contentious issues such as corrupt bishops and priests, the sale of indulgences, and other financial abuses.

What were two causes of the Reformation? ›

The major causes of the protestant reformation include that of political, economic, social, and religious background. The religious causes involve problems with church authority and a monks views driven by his anger towards the church.

Which Catholic reform had the most impact? ›

The most important single event in the Catholic Reformation was almost certainly the Council of Trent, which met intermittently in 25 sessions between 1545 and 1563.

What does Jesuit mean in history? ›

What is a Jesuit? The Jesuits are an apostolic religious community called the Society of Jesus. They are grounded in love for Christ and animated by the spiritual vision of their founder, St. Ignatius of Loyola, to help others and seek God in all things.

What was one important result of the Catholic Reformation? ›

The Council of Trent reaffirmed traditional doctrine, tried to end abuses, and established new schools. Calvinism became one of the largest. The council of Trent (1545-1563) was a turning point in the history of Catholicism when dogma and disciplinary reforms were passed.

Why did the Reformation begin against the Catholic Church? ›

Luther's statements challenged the Catholic Church's role as intermediary between people and God, specifically when it came to the indulgence system, which in part allowed people to purchase a certificate of pardon for the punishment of their sins.

How many people were killed in the Reformation? ›

The war eventually cost about eight million lives. It also redrew the map of Europe. Protestant faiths became a third major branch of Christianity, along with Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy.

Why was the Reformation a failure? ›

The fundamental answer to the question of why the Reformation failed in Ireland is that it did not secure indigenous support. Without it Elizabeth's Reformation could neither be enforced nor propagated effectively in the parishes.

What was destroyed in the Reformation? ›

It was then that the destruction of religious symbols on ideological grounds became widespread. Altars, shrines, statues and stained glass windows, many representing the pinnacle of English art, were thoughtlessly destroyed.

What are 5 causes of the Reformation? ›

What are the Causes of Reformation in Europe?
  • Religious Causes:
  • Economic Causes:
  • Political Causes:
  • New Learning and Spirit of Enquiry:
  • Schism in Church:

How did the Catholic Church change after the Reformation? ›

The Catholic Church eliminated the sale of indulgences and other abuses that Luther had attacked. Catholics also formed their own Counter-Reformation that used both persuasion and violence to turn back the tide of Protestantism.

How did the Reformation change culture? ›

The Protestant Reformation is alleged to have shaped major features of Western culture, including freedom of religion, freedom of conscience, the dignity of the individual, and political democracy.

Did the Catholic Church change the Bible? ›

Absolutely not. In the days of Jesus, there were a lot texts in use by the Hebrew people. These texts were written on individual scrolls and taken out by rabbis when they needed to be read publically. Jesus and his followers would have been very familiar with most of the texts available at that time.

Who was the last person excommunicated from the Catholic Church? ›

The last person to incur public excommunication was Swiss Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre, according to Msgr. John Tracy Ellis, a historian. Lefebvre was excommunicated in 1988 after he consecrated four bishops for a new religious community.

What did Martin Luther not agree with the Catholic Church? ›

He disagreed with the Church's policy on Indulgences (paying money to the Church to obtain forgiveness for sins). Only Catholic priests were allowed to read, interpret, and teach the Bible. The Pope established the only correct way to interpret the scriptures, and all Catholics were bound to follow it.

What 3 reforms were instituted by the Catholic Church? ›

During this time the Catholic Church instituted several reforms, such as better education for pastors, more liberal ideas about the roles of women, and an emphasis on human freedom as a critical feature of theology. These actions formed the foundation of the Enlightenment's belief in individual freedom.

What were the main events of the Reformation and Counter-Reformation? ›

  • 1519: Reformist zeal sweeps the south. ...
  • 1520: Rome flexes its muscles. ...
  • 1521: Luther stands firm at Worms. ...
  • 1525: Rebels are butchered in their thousands. ...
  • 1530: Protestants fight among themselves. ...
  • 1536: Calvin strikes a chord with reformers. ...
  • 1555: Charles V brokers an uneasy peace with Lutherans.
31 Jan 2020

What was the Counter-Reformation 5 points? ›

Counter-Reformation, or Catholic Reformation, In Roman Catholicism, efforts in the 16th and early 17th centuries to oppose the Protestant Reformation and reform the Catholic church. Early efforts grew out of criticism of the worldliness and corruption of the papacy and clergy during the Renaissance.

What was the Counter-Reformation Class 9? ›

Answer: The Reformation Movement was against the Roman Catholic Church in the 16th Century and brought about the birth of Protestant Church. So, Catholic Church through dedicated Christians and some Popes introduced certain reforms within the Church. This movement is known as the Counter Reformation.

What was the Counter-Reformation quizlet? ›

What was the Counter-Reformation? The Catholic Church's series of reforms in a response to the spread of Protestantism. What factors led to the Peasants' War? Peasants were charged with high taxes and had lack of power.

What is meant by Counter-Reformation Class 8? ›

Definitions of Counter Reformation. the reaction of the Roman Catholic Church to the Reformation reaffirming the veneration of saints and the authority of the Pope (to which Protestants objected); many leaders were Jesuits.

Who was the leader of Counter-Reformation Class 9? ›

Ignatius Loyola, a Spanish aristocrat, was the leader of the Counter Reformation Movement.

What is the difference between the Reformation and Counter-Reformation? ›

The phrase Catholic Reformation generally refers to the efforts at reform that began in the late Middle Ages and continued throughout the Renaissance. Counter-Reformation means the steps the Catholic Church took to oppose the growth of Protestantism in the 1500s.

What were the main goals of the Counter-Reformation and did they succeed? ›

Did the Counter-Reformation succeed? The Counter-Reformation succeeded in reforming abuses in the Church and affirming the sacraments and tenets of the Church as well as encouraging the Jesuits to spread Catholicism around the world. It did not succeed in supressing the Protestant sects.

What was the main goal of the Catholic Reformation? ›

The Catholic Reformation was a religious movement that transpired in the 1500s throughout Europe. It aimed at reforming the Catholic Church's corruption and resulted in the creation of Protestantism, a major branch of Christianity.

What did the pope do in the Counter-Reformation? ›

Pope Paul III (1534–49) is considered the first pope of the Counter-Reformation, and he also initiated the Council of Trent (1545–63), tasked with institutional reform, addressing contentious issues such as corrupt bishops and priests, the sale of indulgences, and other financial abuses.

What was the major goal of the Reformation? ›

The key ideas of the Reformation—a call to purify the church and a belief that the Bible, not tradition, should be the sole source of spiritual authority—were not themselves novel.

Why did the Counter-Reformation happen? ›

Throughout the middle ages the Catholic Church sunk deeper into a pit of scandal and corruption. By the 1520s, Martin Luther's ideas crystallized opposition to the Church, and Christian Europe was torn apart. In response, the Catholic Church set in motion the counter-reformation.

What is the perfect example of Counter-Reformation style? ›

The textbook example of Counter-Reformation Baroque sculpture was The Ecstasy of Saint Teresa (1647-52) by Bernini (1598-1680), in the Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome. After Bernini, Rome's greatest Catholic artist was Carlo Maratta (1625-1713).

What is Reformation short answer? ›

1. the act of reforming; state of being reformed. 2. ( cap) the religious movement in the 16th century that had for its object the reform of the Roman Catholic Church, and that led to the establishment of the Protestant churches.

What were the 3 major activities of the Jesuits? ›

Jesuit, member of the Society of Jesus (S.J.), a Roman Catholic order of religious men founded by St. Ignatius of Loyola, noted for its educational, missionary, and charitable works.

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