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Volume 11, Issue 6,
, Pages 563-578
The paper reviews public debates in Israel during the past four years to reform the electoral system, laying out the issues and the obstacles to putting reform into practice. It examines several proposals for electoral reform, in particular whether districting is a practical possibility within constraints laid down by a committee comprising senior members of the two largest political parties—Likud and Labour—and proposes a districting plan that meets these demands. It then presents a series of simulations in the hypothetical constituencies, relating to disciplined and undisciplined voting for party candidates, analysing some possible effects of districting on the results of Israeli elections. The paper outlines the relative benefits and drawbacks to the principal political actors, the parties.
- R. Taagepera et al.Designing electoral systems
- A. LijphartThe field of electoral systems research: a critical survey
- M. GallagherThe political consequences of the electoral system in the Republic of Ireland
- A. DiskinNotes on recent elections: the Israeli General Election of 1988
- A. Brichta
Forty years of struggle for electoral reform in Israel, 1948–1988
Middle East Review
- D. Butler et al.
Reapportionment: a study in comparative government
- A. Lijphart
Israeli democracy and democratic reform in comparative perspective
- R.L. Morrill
Political Redistricting and Geographic Theory
- R.G. Niemi et al.
Membership turnover in U.S. state legislatures: trends and effects of districting
Legislative Studies Quarterly
(1987)(Video) Election Systems in India - Election And Representation | Class 11 Political Science
There are more references available in the full text version of this article.
- Constituency interests without constituencies: The geographical impact of candidate selection on party organization and legislative behavior in the 14th Israeli Knesset, 1996-99
1999, Political Geography
The Israeli political system has recently undergone dramatic and significant structural changes, including the introduction of a new method of candidate selection known as primaries. This article focuses on this new method of candidate selection, which drastically reshaped the connection between the parties and their members, their voters and their representatives, and as a result completely undermined the organizational infrastructure of the parties that adopted primaries. This article describes the reforms that were enacted, assesses their ramifications and focuses on the geographical significance of the innovative aspect of constituency representation by individual parliamentarians, which the primaries injected into the unitary political parties, electoral system and political infrastructure in Israel during the 14th Knesset, 1996–99. In doing so, this article points to a lacuna in the political science literature concerning the relevance and consequences of candidate selection—i.e. intra-party elections—on political geography. The article argues that intra-party electoral reform is not only significant, but, from a political geography perspective, can prove to be as meaningful and consequential as systemic electoral reform.
- Keeping a distance-Israel at 50
1999, Political Geography
- The non-Jewish vote in Israel in 1992
1994, Political Geography
In the Israeli general election of June 1992, non-Jewish voters comprised 12.3 percent of the electorate. Theoretically, this would be sufficient to elect 15 non-Jewish members to the Knesset if there was a united effort to elect only Arab representatives. However, three Arab-supported parties took only 4.88 percent of the valid vote and won five (4.17 percent) of the 120 seats in the Knesset. This understatement of potential electoral strength is due almost entirely to low voter turnout, unfocused voting patterns among non-Jewish voters who, in addition to voting for the three predominantly non-Jewish parties, also cast their votes for the full range of Jewish (Zionist) parties, and the inability of the Arab parties to agree on distribution of their surplus votes among themselves. It would not be improper to say that the distribution of the Arab votes in Israel defies statistical explanation. Statistical analysis of the voting shows that it is extremely difficult to explain or predict the electoral behaviour of the Arab population in Israel, as neither geographical nor socio-economic variables reveal any clear pattern. This study indicates the need for detailed investigations relating directly to local and neighbourhood effects in the Arab vote in Israel.
On the shores of the “moribund backwater”?: Trends in electoral geography research since 1990
2012, Revitalizing Electoral Geography
On the shores of the "moribund backwater"?: Trends in electoral geography research since 1990
2011, Revitalizing Electoral Geography(Video) The collapse of Venezuela, explained
Research articlePolitics drives human functioning, dignity, and quality of life
Social Science & Medicine, Volume 122, 2014, pp. 90-102
Too little is known about human functioning amidst chronic adversity. We addressed that need by studying adult Palestinians in the occupied Palestinian territories (oPt), a population that has experienced longstanding economic and political hardships. Fourteen group interviews were conducted in February, 2010 in Arabic by local fieldworkers with 68 participants representing the main stratifications of Palestinian society: gender, region, refugee status, and political affiliation. Interview tasks included each participant: describing someone doing well and not well, free listing domains of functioning, and prioritizing domains to the three most important. Thematic analyses highlighted the dominating role of the political domain of functioning (e.g., political structures, constraints, effects, identity, and activism) and the degree to which political conditions impacted all other realms of functioning (economic, education, family, psychological, etc.). The discussion links the findings to relevant theory and empirical work that has called attention to the need to include the political in frameworks of quality of life. It also emphasized that values, such as justice, rights, dignity and self-determination, that underlie political structures and policies, are key elements of human functioning. This is the case not only in the oPt, but in any society where power imbalances marginalize segments of the population.
Research articleA yardstick competition approach to a multi-firm regulation problem under asymmetric information
Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, Volume 249, 2013, pp. 24-36
This paper presents a study of multi-firm regulation problems under asymmetric information, using yardstick competition as a regulatory tool for the regulator to evaluate the cost level of the firm. A multi-firm regulation principal–agent model for the problems is then developed with the purpose of maximizing the expected social welfare under the incentive feasible mechanism. In order to solve the proposed model, its equivalent form is given and the sufficient and necessary conditions for ensuring the existence of the optimal regulatory policies are presented. Furthermore, we provide an optimal regulatory policy for a special case, where the output has finite first-order derivatives. An application in supply chain management is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed model. The results demonstrate that the firms whose marginal costs are higher than the yardstick price have an incentive to lower their marginal costs.
Research articleIs there such a thing as a Muslim vote?
Electoral Studies, Volume 66, 2020, Article 102164
This contribution explores to what extent there is such a thing as a distinct Muslim vote in flexible proportional list systems. We test in a new and reliable way whether the religious belonging and behavioural dimension of Muslim voters play a role in their decision-making process when casting preferential votes in a secular democracy. To achieve this, voter and candidate characteristics are modelled simultaneously in cross-classified multilevel analyses where the decision-making process of voters (the demand side) is studied while taking into account the list composition in terms of individual candidates (the supply side). We use data of an exit poll related to the local elections of 2018 in Belgium, especially at oversampled locations. The analyses show that voters who belong to Muslim faith are more likely to vote for Muslim candidates. Contrary, the behaviour dimension of Muslim voters – measured in mosque attendance - has no effect on voting primarily for Muslim candidates.(Video) Election Commission of India | निर्वाचन आयोग | Indian Constitution | Indian Polity
Research articleHow human activities influence the island ecosystem through damaging the natural ecosystem and supporting the social ecosystem?
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 248, 2020, Article 119203
Island human activities damage the natural ecosystem with unique functions and support the social ecosystem for human survival and living. Identifying, quantifying, and spatially exhibiting the damage and support generated by human activities are of great significance for comprehensively revealing the anthropogenic influences on the island ecosystem and reasonably providing references for island development strategy. In this study, an evaluation model was established in perspectives of damage to the natural ecosystem and support for the social ecosystem. The damage involved geomorphology, landscape, habitat, and pollution, and the support included provision, accommodation, transportation, and recreation. The evaluation model was realized on the basis of the island use types, size effects, utilization levels, and change processes. Two new indices, namely, natural ecosystem damaged index (NEDI) and social ecosystem supported index (SESI), were proposed to represent the damage and support, respectively. Thereafter, scenario analysis was adopted to simulate the variations of NEDI and SESI in different scenarios of human activities and to provide references for the island development strategy. A total of ten islands in the Dongtou Archipelago in South China were used as the study area to demonstrate the model. Results indicated that the high NEDI and SESI areas were distributed in building, industrial, road, and reclamation areas, whereas the low NEDI and SESI areas were mainly located in vegetation areas and bare land. In different scenarios, the expansions of the road and building land generated much more damage than support, and the improvement of the utilization level produced more support than damage. The prohibition and limitation of island use types with low efficiency, the enhancement of vegetation restoration, the adequate use of reclamation area, the control of disordered exploitation expansion, and the improvement of utilization levels should be the strategies used by the Dongtou Archipelago for sustainable development. The application of the model validated its effectiveness and applicability in revealing the overall and spatial characteristics of the damage and support for islands and other coastal areas with intensive human activities.
Research articleThe determination of flood damage curve in areas lacking disaster data based on the optimization principle of variation coefficient and beta distribution
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 750, 2021, Article 142277
Flood loss assessment is an important part of urban flood risk management, and the establishment of disaster damage curve is the key of loss assessment. Because of the limitation of data, it is difficult for cities lacking disaster data to fit the damage curve through historical data. Generally, transferring the damage curve among regions is an effective method, but there are problems of data reference and statistical uncertainty. In view of the inland plain cities lacking disaster data, the damage factor of the data reference area can be transferred to the study area by referring to the principle of analogy. Then, based on the optimization principle of the minimum variation coefficient and the maximum beta distribution probability, the citation error and statistical error in the damage factor quotation were reduced, and the relatively accurate damage factor in the study area was obtained, and then the water depth - damage factor curve was established. Thus, a generalized damage curve fitting method for cities lacking disaster data was formed, which took the regional index values as the input parameters and the damage curves as the output results. Finally, taking Zhengzhou City, China as the study area, the loss curves of 10 property types were calculated. Compared with the original data, the average variation coefficient of the optimal scheme set was reduced by 0.1; the probability of the optimal value was increased by 1.39% compared with the average value. In addition, the method test was conducted in Jinan, China, where the data were available, and it was found that the three types of errors were significantly lower than the traditional comparison method of single city as reference object. This study is expected to provide a scientific reference for the establishment of flood damage curve in cities or areas lacking disaster data.
Research articleMapping ice cliffs on debris-covered glaciers using multispectral satellite images
Remote Sensing of Environment, Volume 253, 2021, Article 112201
Ice cliffs play a key role in the mass balance of debris-covered glaciers, but assessing their importance is limited by a lack of datasets on their distribution and evolution at scales larger than an individual glacier. These datasets are often derived using operator-biased and time-consuming manual delineation approaches, despite the recent emergence of semi-automatic mapping methods. These methods have used elevation or multispectral data, but the varying slope and mixed spectral signal of these dynamic features makes the transferability of these approaches particularly challenging. We develop three semi-automated and objective new approaches, based on the Spectral Curvature and Linear Spectral Unmixing of multispectral images, to map these features at a glacier to regional scale. The transferability of each method is assessed by applying it to three sites in the Himalaya, where debris-covered glaciers are widespread, with varying lithologic, glaciological and climatic settings, and encompassing different periods of the melt season. We develop the new methods keeping in mind the wide range of remote sensing platforms currently in use, and focus in particular on two products: we apply the three approaches at each site to near-contemporaneous atmospherically-corrected Pléiades (2m resolution) and Sentinel-2 (10m resolution) images and assess the effects of spatial and spectral resolution on the results. We find that the Spectral Curvature method works best for the high spatial resolution, four band Pléaides images, while a modification of the Linear Spectral Unmixing using the scaling factor of the unmixing is best for the coarser spatial resolution, but additional spectral information of Sentinel-2 products. In both cases ice cliffs are mapped with a Dice coefficient higher than 0.48. Comparison of the Pléiades results with other existing methods shows that the Spectral Curvature approach performs better and is more robust than any other existing automated or semi-automated approaches. Both methods outline a high number of small, sometimes shallow-sloping and thinly debris-covered ice patches that differ from our traditional understanding of cliffs but may have non-negligible impact on the mass balance of debris-covered glaciers. Overall these results pave the way for large scale efforts of ice cliff mapping that can enable inclusion of these features in debris-covered glacier melt models, as well as allow the generation of multiple datasets to study processes of cliff formation, evolution and decline.
Copyright © 1992 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Electoral reform is a change in electoral systems which improves or worsens how public desires are expressed in election results.
1. to reproduce the opinions of the electors in parliament and other public bodies in their true proportions. 2. to secure the majority of electors shall rule and all other considerable minorities shall be heard. 3. to give electors a wider freedom in the choice of representation.
Israel has an electoral system based on nation-wide proportional representation. In other words, the number of seats that each list receives in the Knesset - the House of Representatives - is proportional to the number of votes it received.
- The Requirements.
- Step 1: Primaries and Caucuses.
- Step 2: National Conventions and General Election.
- Step 3: The Electoral College.
ECRA would reform and modernize the outdated 1887 Electoral Count Act to ensure that electoral votes tallied by Congress accurately reflect each state's public vote for President.