The politics of migration (2022)

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Political Geography

Volume 48,

September 2015

, Pages 143-145

Abstract

This editorial introduces the Virtual Special Issue on the Politics of Migration by presenting a review of migration and refugee related articles published in Political Geography. We have identified two major shifts in scope during the last 30 years. First, the scalar focus has changed from nation-state policies to supranational migration agreements and transnational migrant experiences. Second, the theoretical focus has moved from geopolitics to biopolitics. Ten selected articles illustrate three central themes: regulation of migration, practices of border enforcement and migrant experiences.

(Video) What has been the effect of migration on the politics of the countries that have received migrants?

Introduction

Migration is an acute and highly political topic in contemporary societies all over the world. There are currently heated discussions over work-based migration, refugee quotas in European countries, and border enforcement measures taken and planned by the EU in the Mediterranean. Migration trends and policies were among the most-discussed topics in national elections in Europe in Spring 2015, with anti-immigration parties in a number of countries, such as Finland, Denmark and the UK, gaining increased attention and support. In the US, the issues of undocumented migrants and family detention have been the subject of debate and protest. In addition to debates in Europe and North America there are, according to UNHCR, currently more than 51 million displaced people in the world. Most of these people, 86%, are located in less developed countries and around half of the displaced population are children and young people. These different types of movements of people are political by their very nature. This claim does not only apply to national or transnational political fields of governing movement, but also to the banal, everyday life practices and struggles of several precarious groups such as undocumented migrants and refugees.

The question of migration has always been important for political geographers. The scale of this interest is evident in Political Geography, where we identified close to 90 articles relating to immigration, migration, migrants and refugees since the journal began publication in 1982. Some of these were contained in two related special issues: on the geopolitics of migration (2002, 21: 8), and on state-diaspora relations (2014, 41). In addition, a special issue on reconceptualizing the state (2004, 23: 3) drew heavily on studies of migration and migrants. Since 2000, the number of individual articles on migration and refugee-related topics has increased significantly, with 66 published in the last 15 years.

Section snippets

The changing political geographies of migration

By looking at the substance of the articles published in Political Geography, we identify two major shifts in scope over the last 30 years. First, the scalar focus has changed from the politico-territorial regulation of nation-state policies on immigration to supranational migration frameworks and transnational practices and experiences. Second, the theoretical framing has moved from geopolitics to biopolitics. Authors discuss the globally structured and governed micro-politics of lived

Regulating migration: from national mandate to supranational scope

During the 1980s, the marked increase in the number of migrants and asylum-seekers from Asia and Africa started a development which has led to several restrictive national legislations in Europe and North America. Wood (1989) stressed that nation-states tried to predict migration flows through push and pull factors, but noted that intervening forces, such as the worsening of the local economy, were often not considered. These control efforts started to build geoeconomic fortresses and ever

Border enforcement and biometric governing of movement

The shift in research interest from geopolitics to biopolitics is evident among political geographers focusing on border enforcement. Since the early 2000s, biometric border control and the biopolitics of the body have been widely theorized and studied. Governing the movement of people means that bodies become sources and targets of surveillance and prediction: who is a trusted body on the move and who is not. As Amoore (2006: 343) argues, “immigrant biometrics is based on ongoing surveillance

Tracing the spatialities of migrant experiences

Published work on the spatialities of migrant experiences is particularly useful for demonstrating the changing scalar focus. While the nation-state remains an important actor, its role and significance varies, and other scales of analysis are incorporated, often in an intersectional way. In an early article, Jackson (1992) discusses Caribana, an annual Caribbean festival in Toronto that began in 1967 and continues to the present day. Jackson's focus, influenced by the cultural turn, is

Conclusion

As this brief overview shows, political geographers have shown a broad interest in the processes constituting migration, border enforcement and migrant experiences, and geographic approaches to migration more generally have been strongly influenced by their work (see Samers, 2010: 180–298). Scholars have used a variety of onto-epistemological frameworks to show migration as multiscalar and as multidimensional. In turn, they have used these insights to provide new perspectives on political

Conflict of interest

The authors whose names are listed immediately below certify that they have NO affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest (such as honoraria; educational grants; participation in speakers' bureaus; membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest; and expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements), or non-financial interest (such as personal or professional relationships, affiliations, knowledge or beliefs) in

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to acknowledge support from the Department of Geography at Maynooth University. Kuusisto-Arponen wishes to thank Academy of Finland (projects SA 266161 and SA 272168).

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    (Video) The Politics of Immigration in Europe

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There are more references available in the full text version of this article.

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  • A ‘distributive regime’: Rethinking global migration control

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    Foucault was deeply interested in understanding how micro-political and place-specific dynamics concatenate to generate broader political and institutional effects, or as Bob Jessop puts it, how “diverse power relations come to be colonized and articulated into more general mechanisms that sustain more encompassing forms of domination” (2007: 36, see also Foucault, 1990: 92-4). It is partly for these reasons that Political Geographers have, as Anna-Kaisa Kuusisto-Arponen and Mary Gilmartin note, been attempting to document and theorize the change in the scalar focus of migration governance “… from the politico-territorial regulation of nation-state policies on immigration to supranational migration frameworks …” (2015: 143). While doubters and discoverers come at the global migration regime from different directions, they are both concerned with the same question: whether global migration is controlled in accordance with an identifiable principle – or set thereof.

    International regimes govern how officials address specific issue areas in global politics. There is a deep and unresolved debate as to whether we can speak of an international migration regime. This article seeks to develop the theoretical language to resolve this debate. We introduce the concept of a ‘distributive regime’: a structure that coordinates movement and settlement control practices in ways that engender ideal distributions of populations across space. The paper demonstrates the discriminatory power of this concept by using it to shed light on analogous forms of movement and settlement control in the study of slavery and incarceration. We then suggest that we could resolve the extant debate about the status of the international migration regime by further exploring the hypothesis that contemporary migration control practices are coordinated in ways that achieve a distributive effect.

  • Lebanon's response to the Syrian Refugee crisis – Institutional ambiguity as a governance strategy

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    This ‘ambiguous exercise of power’ (Oesch, 2017, p. 11) or ‘agnopolitics’ (Davies et al., 2017, p. 14) in the context of the Syrian refugee crisis in Lebanon has conceptual as well as applied implications for debates on the politics of migration. It furthers our understanding of the political utility of what Kuusisto-Arponen and Gilmartin (2015, p.143) call the ‘precarious refugee’ that is produced through ‘permanent spaces of politico-administrative limbos.’ It does so by empirically substantiating how and why processes of ‘narrowing legality’ and ‘producing illegality’ serve socio-economic and political interests (Gorman, 2017, p. 40).

    In comparison with other regional host countries Lebanon's response to the Syrian refugee crisis is characterized by a remarkable degree of institutional ambiguity. Government policy has centered on the prohibition of formal refugee camps and adopted regulations with regard to registration, residence, and work which drive refugees into illegality. This is partly the result of the chaotic and overwhelming nature of any refugee crisis, which is only reinforced by the Lebanese government's limited resources and capacities and the country's dysfunctional political system. However, institutional ambiguity in the context of the Lebanese response to the Syrian refugee crisis is not merely contingent. Departing from agnotology theory, this article demonstrates that there is also a strategic component to the institutional ambiguity that now determines the life of Syrian refugees in Lebanon. On the basis of fieldwork among Syrian refugee communities, elaborate policy analysis, and an extensive literature review the article reveals the political utility of maintaining uncertainty and precariousness. These insights have profound implications for the analysis of refugee politics and the formulation of policy recommendations.

  • Between crises and borders: Interventions on Mediterranean Neighbourhood and the salience of spatial imaginaries

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    In this light, Ceuta and Melilla can be also read within the context of the impact of the changing political geographies of migration and its regulation. In a recent contribution to Political Geography, Kuusisto-Arponen and Gilmartin (2015, 143) underscore the increasing salience of biopolitical perspectives that infuse geopolitics with scrutiny of ‘(…) globally structured and governed micro-politics of lived migration and the creation of permanent spaces of politico-administrative limbos such as camps, detention centres and the legal traps experienced by undocumented people.’ Elsewhere Ferrer-Gallardo and Albet-Mas (2016) have argued that these North-African cities under Spanish sovereignty have become limbo-like landscapes or limboscapes between two different borders where migrants' northward trajectories are spatially and temporally suspended.

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  • Geography, migration and abandonment in the Calais refugee camp

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  • Biopolitics of migration: An assemblage approach

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FAQs

What is the effect of migration in terms of its political impact? ›

Migrants eventually induce social, economic, and political problems in receiving countries, including 1) increases in the population, with adverse effects on existing social institutions; 2) increases in demand for goods and services; 3) displacement of nationals from occupations in the countryside and in the cities; 4 ...

What are the 4 theories of migration? ›

There are social, economic, political, and demographic causes for migration. Poverty, unemployment are some social causes for migration. War, terrorism, inequality, are some political causes for migration.

What are the types of migration? ›

What are the types of migration?
  • Internal migration: moving within a state, country, or continent.
  • External migration: moving to a different state, country, or continent.
  • Emigration: leaving one place to move to another.
  • Immigration: moving into a new place.
  • Return migration: moving back to where you came from.

What are some negative effects of migration? ›

Negative impacts on the destination location
  • Pressure on public services such as schools, housing, and healthcare.
  • Overcrowding.
  • Language and cultural barriers can exist.
  • Increased levels of pollution.
  • Increased pressure on natural resources.
  • Racial tensions and discrimination.

What are the political reasons for migration? ›

But apart from economic factors, there are political factors that cause people to move from their home country to another country. War, persecution and the absence of political rights are the predominant political factors in migration.

What does political migration mean? ›

Political migration is any migration motivated primarily by political interests. Typically, political migration is in one of two classes, private or government, depending on who encourages the migration. Political migrations differs from other migrations by attempting to change aspects of a political system.

Why is migration important? ›

Migration is important for the transfer of manpower and skills and provides the needed knowledge and innovation for global growth. In order to address the issues raised by global migration, it is necessary to improve international coordination.

How does migration affect the economy? ›

For a sending country, migration and the resulting remittances lead to increased incomes and poverty reduction, and improved health and educational outcomes, and promote economic development. Yet these gains might come at substantial social costs to the migrants and their families.

What is mean by migrations? ›

Definition of migrate

to go from one country, region, or place to another. to pass periodically from one region or climate to another, as certain birds, fishes, and animals: The birds migrate southward in the winter. to shift, as from one system, mode of operation, or enterprise to another.

What is migration in economic? ›

Economic migration is the movement of people from one country to another to benefit from greater economic opportunities in the receiving country.

What is migration in social? ›

Migration refers to the movement of people from one location to another.

How can we control migration? ›

Following measures can check the migration of rural people towards urban: Better health facilities in rural area Job opportunities in rural areas Social Security
  1. Better health facilities in rural area.
  2. Job opportunities in rural areas.
  3. Social Security.

How does migration affect society? ›

For a sending country, migration and the resulting remittances lead to increased incomes and poverty reduction, improve health and educational outcomes, and promote productivity and access to finance. Although individual variation exists, the economic impact is primarily and substantially positive.

How does migration affect the world? ›

Migration raises world GDP, in particular by raising productivity. Average per capita incomes of natives increase as their skills are complemented with those of migrants. Remittances from abroad lift income per capita in the origin countries, helping to offset the potentially negative effects of emigration.

Why is migration a social problem? ›

As an issue of social, economic, and political issues, migration has attracted a lot of responses from different people, individuals, and groups. The most dominant social problems result from the place of destination to within the place of destination. This implies migration within and outside the country.

What are the political factors? ›

Political factors involve the decisions and laws that governments make.
...
Political factors
  • tax.
  • laws.
  • political stability.

What are the main political barriers to international migration? ›

Political barriers, such as immigration laws, may prevent migration and keep some people out of a country. For example, some governments close their borders and allow only certain types of people into their country.

What are political pull factors? ›

Push factors “push” people away from their home and include things like war. Pull factors “pull” people to a new home and include things like better opportunities. The reasons people migrate are usually economic, political, cultural, or environmental.

Is migration related to politics? ›

International migration is an increasingly important part of world politics. However, despite its inherently political and inherently international nature, it remains relatively neglected by scholars of International Relations in comparison to other trans-boundary issue-areas.

How does migration help a country? ›

Economic growth

 Migration boosts the working-age population.  Migrants arrive with skills and contribute to human capital development of receiving countries. Migrants also contribute to technological progress. Understanding these impacts is important if our societies are to usefully debate the role of migration.

How important is migration to people's lives? ›

Migration helps in improving the quality of life of people. It helps to improve social life of people as they learn about new culture, customs, and languages which helps to improve brotherhood among people. Migration of skilled workers leads to a greater economic growth of the region.

What are the causes and impact of migration? ›

Host country
AdvantagesDisadvantages
A richer and more diverse cultureIncreasing cost of services such as health care and education
Helps to reduce any labour shortagesOvercrowding
Migrants are more prepared to take on low paid, low skilled jobsDisagreements between different religions and cultures

How does migration change culture? ›

We find that migration leads to an increase in cultural similarity between host and home country and provide evidence that this cultural convergence is caused by a diffusion of values and norms from the host to the home country, i.e. cultural remittances.

What is migration Wikipedia? ›

Migration is the travelling of long distances in search of a new habitat. The trigger for the migration may be local climate, local availability of food, or the season of the year. To be counted as a true migration, and not just a local dispersal, the movement should be an annual or seasonal event.

What is migration Class 9? ›

Migration is the movement of people across regions and territories. Migration can be internal (within the country) or international (between the countries). Internal migration does not change the size of the population but influences the distribution of population within the nation.

How does migration affect population? ›

With increasing migration, the population distribution between locations changes, including the critical behavior of extinction of population for some locations for a specific set of the rules. Then, the deserted location may become populated again if the migration is still increasing as result of a pressure to move.

What is migration in Brainly? ›

Migration is the movement of either people or animals from one area to another. Migration can be used for the journey from one place to another or for the act of movement. grendeldekt and 8 more users found this answer helpful.

What factors affect migration? ›

Among the 'macro-factors', the political, demographic, socio-economic and environmental situations are major contributors to migration. These are the main drivers of forced migration, either international or internal, and largely out of individuals' control.

What are economic reasons for migration? ›

Demographic and economic migration is related to labour standards, unemployment and the overall health of a country's' economy. Pull factors include higher wages, better employment opportunities, a higher standard of living and educational opportunities.

What is the problem of migration? ›

However, people migrating for work face key challenges including: i) lack of social security and health benefits and poor implementation of minimum safety standards law, ii) lack of portability of state-provided benefits especially food provided through the public distribution system (PDS) and iii) lack of access to ...

How can government prevent urban migration? ›

Rural-urban migration may be reduced by interventions which increase cultivatable land, equalize land or income distribution, or decrease fertility.

Can government do anything to solve the problem of migration? ›

Following measures can be taken by the government to solve the problems of migrations are : 1. Address the drivers of involuntary migration and create more legal avenues of migration. 2. Go back to the basics, to the historically positive nature of migration.

How can migration improve our community? ›

They allow countries to raise necessary funds, such as after disasters, whilst avoiding accumulating debt from expensive lenders. Moreover, migrants also enhance economic development and productivity in their home countries through foreign direct investments and the creation of new businesses.

Is migration good for economy? ›

Migration also delivers major economic benefits to home countries. While migrants spend most of their wages in their host countries – boosting demand there – they also tend to send money to support families back home. Such remittances have been known to exceed official development assistance.

How does migration shape the country's political and economic stability? ›

For a sending country, migration and the resulting remittances lead to increased incomes and poverty reduction, improve health and educational outcomes, and promote productivity and access to finance. Although individual variation exists, the economic impact is primarily and substantially positive.

What is migration and its effects? ›

Migration is a way to move from one place to another in order to live and work. Movement of people from their home to another city, state or country for a job, shelter or some other reasons is called migration. Migration from rural areas to urban areas has increased in past few years in India.

What are the economic impacts of migration? ›

Migration raises world GDP, in particular by raising productivity. Average per capita incomes of natives increase as their skills are complemented with those of migrants. Remittances from abroad lift income per capita in the origin countries, helping to offset the potentially negative effects of emigration.

What are the factors that affect migration? ›

Migration is a global phenomenon caused not only by economic factors, but also by social, political, cultural, environmental, health, education and transportation factors.

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